/homepage/toolbarImages/toolbar-Hellous-onsite-mouseover.png
/homepage/toolbarImages/toolbar-HellonycCultural-outsite-mouseover.png
/homepage/toolbarImages/toolbar-facebook-selected.png
友站連結:
MBA的新潮流? 創新與社會責任
6868
December 10, 2011 by HelloUS.com
全新的MBA Re-inventing the M.B.A.




MBA的新潮流? 創新與社會責任

Margaret Loftus

Lindsey Barnes剛到印度展開為期一個月的在科技公司Infosys的實習,在這裡,她第一次真正體會到在史丹佛商學院念書時出現過的問題─Lindsey被指派參與專案,公司希望透過這個專案提升公司經理人對於新產品的開發,而用更實惠的價格服務客戶。然而,她的同事─這些專案中的對象─卻完全無法進入狀況。

Lindsey開始尋找可以應用以前商學院上過的課程,最後,她決定先聽聽這些經理人的想法,看看他們真正的「擔心」來自於哪理?之後,經理們終於變得「有反應」。透過雙向的溝通,Lindsey減低這些經理們的擔心,提高他們對於計畫的信任。Lindsey認為「如果要大家對於專案支持,那就要讓這些人知道負責人也抱持相同的態度。」

Barnes的經驗正是這一連串MBA改革計畫的最佳驗證,最近許多的MBA課程都在致力於減少過去那種以理論為本的課程,例如:行銷和財務;增加其他課程,如:領導力、創新、社會責任和國際觀,而這項商學院的改革就從幾個著名的商學院開始,包含耶魯管理學院Yale School of Management、史丹佛商學院Stanford、賓州大學華頓商學院University of Pennsylvania Wharton School等…。
負責針對商學院評比的AACSB負責人Fernandes認為MBA課程目標就是建立在不斷的改變中,因為我們社會對於這些領導人的要求更加嚴苛,而MBA的改變也變得更加迫切。」

耶魯管理學院(Yale School of Management)首先在2006年提出新的課程計劃,然後在為期一年的課程後,針對這些新課程提出修正,學校針對這些建議,刪除傳統的財務金融課程,改為讓學生選修投資與客戶管理,讓學生從不同的角度來學習金融課程。經濟課也是一樣的規劃,學習用競爭者、社會等不同層面來上課。

商學院常用的個案學習也有修正,學校提供的不只是經過整理的資料,學校改用沒有修改過的「原始版本」,連原始檔案數字都沒有修改過,耶魯管理學院的學生Jason形容這些資料迫使他們學習找切入點,用企業角度思考問題。

另外一個重點是「領導力」(leadership development)。哈佛商學院教授David Garvin,同時也是Rethinking the MBA: Business Education at a Crossroads.共同作者指出這是商學院最想要教給學生的東西,學校透過經驗和練習,讓學生了解要如何引導下屬和給他們建議。史丹佛商學院也引用Dean Garth Saloner理論,教導學生領導該有的三個東西:邏輯分析思考critical analytical thinking、創新思考innovative thinking、個人領導魅力personal leadership。

MBA課程的一大挑戰就是學生未來任職的企業現在並不存在,現在他們或許在對沖基金hedge funds或是生物科技公司biotechnology上班,但是這些20年後並不一定存在,為了因應時代潮流,華頓商學院因此指派商院副院長,把商業不確定性,也融入在未來商學院的課程設計中。

此外,最近的金融動盪也促使MBA增加社會責任的課程。MBA因為這些金融問題備受社會譴責,他們現在希望可以教出不只有學會追求利益最大化的主管。像史丹佛商學院就增加商業道德的客座講座。

不過,再多的課也無法滿足逐漸全球化的商業行為,史丹佛商學院Stanford Business School要求所有的學生不僅要上課,還要參加實習和專案,或者是去一個他們從未居住或公做過的國家進行課外學習。密西根大學的羅斯商學院University of Michigan Ross School of Business商學院學生至少花七週的時間進行小組專案,愛默生大學的商學院Emory University Goizueta Business School也有類似的計畫,學生在春假的時候,和小組組員到各國旅行,尋找和自己小組記畫相關的公司,有組學生就到哥斯大黎加採訪當地的咖啡農業。

哈佛商學院教授為此做下評論:「教學生中國和印度的政治經濟,這是一回事;讓他們真正學會和實作,那又是另外一回事了。」

Re-inventing the M.B.A.

B-schools are overhauling curriculum to turn out more innovative, socially responsible leaders.

By Margaret Loftus

Lindsey Olier Barnes had just arrived in Bangalore, India for a monthlong internship at IT giant Infosys when she encountered one of the real-world problems she'd heard so much about back at Stanford University's Graduate School of Business. The Infosys group to which she was assigned had been tasked with getting managers to focus on new products as well as the company's traditional niche, providing cost-cutting solutions to clients. The move was out of the comfort zone for many managers, and a constant complaint of her colleagues in the group was, "They won't listen."

So Barnes took a page from her Leadership Labs course. She made a point of hearing out the managers before launching into her own spiel, so she could "address the root causes of their concerns." Suddenly they seemed more receptive and started asking questions about the new strategy. By letting them voice their worries about what the change could mean for them and their employees, Barnes says, she earned their trust. She had learned that "people don't care about how much you know until they know how much you care."

Barnes's communication coup is exactly the kind of outcome business educators have in mind as they rethink M.B.A. programs to de-emphasize traditional discipline-based courses like marketing and finance in favor of a focus on leadership skills, innovation, social responsibility, and a global perspective. A handful of elite institutions, including the Yale School of Management, Stanford, and, most recently, the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, have led the charge with radical curriculum overhauls.

But John Fernandes, president and CEO of AACSB International–The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, which accredits b-schools, estimates that upwards of 75 percent of schools have made some changes to their curricula. "In many instances, you are seeing them being destroyed and rebuilt," he says. The capacity of the leaders "that society expects today is so demanding and so broad that everyone is rushing to meet those needs."

Yale rolled out its new curriculum in 2006, after a yearlong review in which administrators found a widening disconnect between M.B.A. programs and the business world. The school eliminated traditional coursework in favor of interdisciplinary classes focused on the "organizational perspectives" of different parties. So, for example, instead of taking a finance class, students take courses on the investor and the customer and learn about the fundamentals of finance in each class from those different perspectives. Economics is similarly taught from various viewpoints, including those of competitors, the state and society, and operations.

The old case study method of instruction has been revisited, too. Rather than consider pre-digested summaries of company situations, students tackle "raw cases" packed with original data. Instead of being presented with an income statement, for example, they must mine the considerably bulkier annual filing to the Securities and Exchange Commission for data. The raw cases "push us to understand," says second-year Yale student Jason Hill. "They purposely put in more material than you could ever look at, but you have to learn where to look."

Another buzz phrase in b-school circles these days is "leadership development." It's a key component of the M.B.A. programs deemed most successful by David Garvin, a professor of business administration at Harvard Business School and coauthor of Rethinking the MBA: Business Education at a Crossroads. The ability to guide others and give staff members critical feedback must be developed, Garvin argues, through exercises and experiences that develop self-awareness and an appreciation of how coworkers affect one another. Stanford similarly stresses what Dean Garth Saloner calls three leadership capabilities: critical analytical thinking; innovative thinking; and personal leadership.

A challenge for M.B.A. programs today is that many of the industries in which their grads will be leaders don't yet exist. "Today they work in hedge funds and biotechnology," says Wharton Dean Thomas Robertson. "None of that existed 20 years ago." Wharton has appointed a vice dean to focus specifically on ensuring that innovation is everywhere in the new curriculum, which was approved last December. One new course content area, for example, is Management of Operations, Innovation, Information, and Decisions under Uncertainty.

The recent financial upheaval has also led M.B.A. programs to focus more on social responsibility. Business schools have been blamed for fostering the culture of greed—or at least short-sightedness—that led to the crisis. As a result, says AACSB's Fernandes, schools are exploring how to change their curricula to produce responsible leaders who don't focus solely "on profit maximization."

Stanford, for one, has introduced an ethics class with guest lectures by industry veterans. Students are presented with real-life issues such as "spinning," a controversial practice in which investment banks offer stock options to executives with whom they do business in advance of an initial public offering. "I do believe that business schools have an obligation to society to be a force for good," says Wharton's Robertson.
Perhaps no curriculum change has been more widely embraced by educators than the global component. Stanford now requires students to do an internship, a service-learning project, or a study trip in a country where they haven't lived or worked before the start of their second year. At the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business, students spend the last seven weeks of their first year immersed in small-group field projects at real companies. One team is traveling to South Africa to help an alternative energy company develop a leasing model for a fuel cell power plant.
Three years ago, Emory University's Goizueta Business School introduced a 10-day break during spring semester so students could earn credit by traveling abroad with a faculty member to explore a topic relevant to the host country in association with local and multinational firms. Students visit Costa Rica, for example, to help develop the local coffee farm industry.

"It's one thing to teach the political economy of China and India," says Harvard's Garvin. "It's another thing to get on the ground in field projects in those countries and actually try and get something done.
MAYBE YOU NEED / 小補助讓HelloUS繼續成長
MOST READ / 其它同時正在被閱讀的文章:
01/18 5:56 am :
【學長姐經驗分享】法律人才Anna 聯合國大使顧問
Anna在大學時就已立志走智慧財產權的方向,對於自己的生涯出路,她是個很有主見...
01/18 5:56 am :
洛杉磯縣立美術館 LACMA
【五大值得去的原因】: 號稱密西西比河以西最大的美術館 專門陳列羅丹...
01/18 5:56 am :
10種專業主修,美國工作難找?
Payscale, 一家研究美國就業市場的公司, 最近針對 100 種最受美國人...
01/18 5:56 am :
申請美國電影製作研究所的迷思
迷思一:一定要有跟電影製作相關的學經歷才能申請美國電影製作研究所 ...
01/18 5:56 am :
如何正確選擇適合自己的大學
如何正確選擇適合自己的大學 § 原創翻譯:Hello US § ...
01/18 5:56 am :
文法 - might, may, will, would
最近在寫email時,對這幾個字的用法不是很了解 比如說,什麼時候用mig...
01/18 5:56 am :
工作簽證**
年底回台灣因為換了工作的關係又要辦一次H1-B簽證了 剛看了一下美國在台協...
01/18 5:56 am :
【學長姐經驗分享】動畫師HUNG:「迪士尼改變了我的人生」
「動畫是一門表演的藝術」HUNG說。只要是對HUNG有一點認識的人都知道他是個"...
01/18 5:55 am :
【2014年USNews】2014美國最佳平面設計研究所排名 Best Graphic Design
USNews 2013年的排名出爐了。USNews每年公布一次,此為2013年3...
01/18 5:55 am :
[社區大學]加州De Anza College德安薩學院
德安薩學院坐落於矽谷Silicon Valley之中心地帶,附近有許多知名的科技...