GMAT-AWA分析寫作模板
13809
October 26, 2010 by ziv
我來分享一個5分的AWA模板,用結構式作文的方式幫助大家掌握得分之鑰。不論是Issue、還是Argument,我都採用5段式作文,第一段是引言段,抄題目,並提出立場或題目所犯的邏輯錯誤;第二、三、四段是主體段,每段提出一個reason,並舉一個example去support它;第五段是結論段,summarize主體段的reasons,最後restate引言段的立場或邏輯錯誤。如此才能環環相扣、頭尾呼應、結構縝密。另外,關於Argument作文,我的心得是只要模板的句型結構可以套用,通通打上去,不要管它究竟犯了幾個邏輯錯誤,這是一個強迫取分的戰術,畢竟時間有限,要盡可能把模板套用上去,把文章塞滿。實際考試的時候,先把各段的模板打上去,把文章的骨架先弄出來,然後用reason跟example把文章的肉補進去。通常模板(骨架)打上去就有120~150字了,剩下二、三、四段的reason跟example,每段花50~60個字做說明,這樣就有洋洋灑灑300字了。而且,這個模板還有一個好處,首尾兩段一開始就套公式寫好了,所以萬一時間來不及,你的句子會斷在第四段最後一句,但不影響文章整體結構,還是可以拿5分。接下來,我來說明Issue跟Argument的模板該如何使用?

ISSUE

引言段:

第一句:抄題目

第二句:眾說紛紜,套萬用句,一句用在第一段;一句用在最後一段。
(1)Views differ greatly when it comes to the issue of whether/ the statement that
(2)People respond differently to the issue of whether

第三句:立意,同意/不同意;全部/部分(partially agree with), 套萬用句,一句用在第一段;一句用在最後一段。
(1)My personal experience and actual observations of life have led me to conclude that
(2)I strongly agree with this statement for the following reasons.

主體段:分成二、三、四段,每段包含三部份─reason、example,最後再改寫reason(也就是換句話說),用來衝字數。但如果舉的example 內容夠多,可以把改寫reason這一部份省略掉。

First of all, reason 1 + example + 改寫reason 1

In addition, reason 2 + example + 改寫reason 2

Finally, reason 3 + example + 改寫reason 3

補充:請盡量使用下列連接詞、副詞做為每一句的開頭。AWA用電腦閱卷時會去掃這些連接詞、副詞,是否跟你引言段的立場相同或違背。 電腦不可能聰明到能理解你的立場,但它至少能透過這些關鍵字去分析你的文章是否前後矛盾、立論不一致,所以要多用、善用這些連接詞、副詞,一方面增加字數;一方面幫助電腦做有效分析,以 真實反映你的程度。

轉折:However, Nevertheless, On the contrary, On the other hand
因果:Therefore, Consequently, As a result, Thus, Hence
舉例:For example/instance
強調:Moreover, Furthermore, Besides, In addition, In fact,
In other words,

結論段:

第一句:In conclusion, + 眾說紛紜
第二句:summarize主體段的reasons
第三句:restate position(改寫立意那一句)

PS.Issue與Argument不同點:用「眾說紛紜」取代「主題句」,並多了「立意」。

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Argument
引言段:

第一句:抄題目

第二句:主題句,指出題目所犯的邏輯錯誤(套萬用句,一句用在第一段;一句用在最後一段)。

請注意,Argument作文一定要持反對立場,這樣才能引用萬用句去攻擊它。萬用句我分成兩種,一種是通用型的,不管犯什麼邏輯錯誤都可以套;一種是特殊型的,必須針對特定邏輯錯誤才可以套用。

主體段:結構同Issue的主體段。唯一不同的是,在行文中,如果句型結構可以套得上去,就把針對特定邏輯錯誤的模板引用上去,以充實版面。就算套三、四個特定邏輯錯誤的模板也沒關係,因為題目的論述所犯的邏輯錯誤絕對不只一個,就盡情發揮吧!

結論段:

第一句:In conclusion, + restate主題句(套另一句萬用句)
第二句:summarize主體段的reasons
第三句:結尾句

萬用句:不論犯什麼邏輯錯誤都可以套。
第一段:However, I do not think the argument is logically convincing because some of the assumptions on which its conclusion rests are highly questionable for the following reasons.
第一段:At first glance, the author’s argument appears to be somewhat convincing, but further reflection reveals that it is based on some dubious assumptions.
最後一段:In conclusion, the author’s argument is not well reasoned because it rests on questionable assumptions.
最後一段:The argument is not acceptable because it does not have sufficient evidence to support its conclusion.

針對特定邏輯錯誤的萬用句:

★過度簡化(oversimplification):找更多factors.

第一段:At first glance, the author’s argument appears to be somewhat convincing, but further reflection reveals that it leaves out some significant factors that should be addressed to substantiate the argument.
最後一段:Therefore, the conclusion lacks credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the

★錯誤類比(faulty analogy):

第一段:I wonder whether the comparison of two things suggests that they are similar when they are, in fact, distinctively different.
最後一段:The argument wrongly assumes that X and Y are analogous.

★不合邏輯的推論(illogical reasoning)或無法檢驗的論點:

第一段:The argument is based on the writer’s own speculation rather than on the result of a study or on the government-released information. What is worse, he is trying to pass his speculation off as an established fact.
最後一段:The argument is invalid because its assumption that_______ is
highly questionable.

以偏概全(overgeneralization):
第一段:The author makes a logical connection between A and B, but he does not supply enough information to support its generalization.
最後一段:The evidence that the author lays out is not conclusive because only one example is rarely sufficient to establish a general conclusion.

誤用統計數字:

第一段:The argument makes a seemingly attractive claim, but its persuasive force is seriously weakened by the misinterpretation of its statistics.
最後一段:The author fails to interpret those statistics correctly.

時間先後不能視為因果

第一段:The author assumes that because one event follows another in time, the first event caused the second. In other words, he mistakes a temporal connection for a causal connection.
第一段:______may be a matter of coincidence, not cause and effect.
最後一段:There is no proof of a direct-cause relationship between X and Y.
最後一段:A post-hoc fallacy makes the argument invalid.
抽象概念被視為具體事實

第一段:An abstract concept is used as if it were concrete reality.
最後一段:The credibility of the survey is in doubt. If the survey is
conducted by a reliable institution, the argument will be more
convincing.
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這邊是在準備GMAT寫作時,看到的好物~~:P
分享給各位,也謝謝PTT/senge網友熱心的整理分享~~~
October 29, 2010 by hancy
這篇整理的真不錯~ 推一下

另外在gmatclub.com看到一篇類似的 也是結構和關鍵字的整理
也推薦給大家參考一下吧~
謝謝chineseburned網友

來源: http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html

Guide to Perfect 6.0 AWA GMAT Score

Also, list of all AWA topics from GMAC: collection-of-awa-topics-for-gmat-official-list-from-gmac-82734.html



Like I said in other threads, I took the GMAT twice and scored 6.0 each time. I did put a lot of time in it the first time....too much actually. Being a non-native speaker and having not written a damn essay (of any kind) in many many years, I was very scared of the AWA. So, I went through every guide that I could find and wrote nearly 25-30 essays. Even had a friend grade them for me.....Pathetic, huh?
Anyway, for my second time, I just looked over my templates I created and wrote one of each the day before test just to refresh my memory on faster typing without making too many typos......

So, here it is....Enjoy, and please do not blame me if the 6.0 percentile goes down to 80 soon


AWA GUIDE

by Chineseburned


1. General Structure

1.1 Argument
Intro - Restate argument, point out flaws or state intention to discuss them below
1st Para - First,...
2nd Para - Second/In addition,...
3rd Para - Third/Finally,...
Conclusion - The argument is flawed/weak/unconvincing because of the above -mentioned...Ultimately, the argument can be strengthened if/by...

1.2 Issue
Intro - Restate issue, take a position
1st Para - First/One reason...
2nd Para - Second/Another reason...
3rd Para - Third/Perhaps the best reason...
Conclusion - Acknowledge the other position but re-affirm yours and conclude that it is the stronger.


2. Structural Word (should be all over the essays)

2.1 Supporting examples - for example, to illustrate, for instance, because, specifically
2.2 Additional support - furthermore, in addition, similarly, just as, also, as a result, moreover
2.3 Importance - surely, truly, undoubtedly, clearly, in fact, most importantly
2.4 Contrast - on the contrary, yet, despite, rather, instead, however, although, while
2.5 Decide against - one cannot deny that, it could be argued that, granted, admittedly
2.6. Ying-yang - on the one hand/on the other hand
2.7 Concluding - therefore, in summary, consequently, hence, in conclusion, ultimately, in closing


3. Templates

3.1 Argument

Intro:
The argument claims that ....(restate)
Stated in this way the argument:
a) manipulates facts and conveys a distorted view of the situation
:P reveals examples of leap of faith, poor reasoning and ill-defined terminology
c) fails to mention several key factors, on the basis of which it could be evaluated
The conclusion of the argument relies on assumptions for which there is no clear evidence. Hence, the argument is weak/unconvincing and has several flaws.

1st Para:
First, the argument readily assumes that......
This statement is a stretch....
For example,...
Clearly,...
The argument could have been much clearer if it explicitly stated that...

2nd Para:
Second, the argument claims that....
This is again a very weak and unsupported claim as the argument does not demonstrate any correlation between....and...
To illustrate,...
While,...
However,....indeed....
In fact, it is not at all clear...rather....
If the argument had provided evidence that.....then the argument would have been a lot more convincing.

3rd Para:
Finally,...
(pose some questions for the argument).....Without convincing answers to these questions, one is left with the impression that the claim is more of a wishful thinking rather than substantive evidence.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the argument is flawed for the above-mentioned reasons and is therefore unconvincing. It could be considerably strengthened if the author clearly mentioned all the relevant facts....
In order to assess the merits of a certain situation/decision, it is essential to have full knowledge of all contributing factors. In this particular case....
Without this information, the argument remains unsubstantiated and open to debate.


3.2 Issue

Intro:
Many/some people think that....Others.....(restate)
The issue is a controversial one but a closer examination reveals that....(take a position)...for several reasons.

1st Para:
One reason is that/for...
For example,...
Furthermore,...
Clearly,...

2nd Para:
Another reason is that/for...
To illustrate,...
As a result,...

3rd Para:
Perhaps the best reason is (that)....
Specifically,...
Moreover/In addition....
In fact,....
Therefore,....

Conclusion:
In summary, while there are arguments to be made for both sides, it is clear that there are greater advantages to....(repeat the reasons).
Certainly,.....outweigh.......
Hence,....(re-affirm your position)




4. Going from the templates to full-fledged essays

4.1 Argument

ESSAY QUESTION:
The following appeared in the editorial section of a national news magazine:

"The rating system for electronic games is similar to the movie rating system in that it provides consumers with a quick reference so that they can determine if the subject matter and contents are appropriate. This electronic game rating system is not working because it is self regulated and the fines for violating the rating system are nominal. As a result an independent body should oversee the game industry and companies that knowingly violate the rating system should be prohibited from releasing a game for two years."

Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. Point out flaws in the argument's logic and analyze the argument's underlying assumptions. In addition, evaluate how supporting evidence is used and what evidence might counter the argument's conclusion. You may also discuss what additional evidence could be used to strengthen the argument or what changes would make the argument more logically sound.

YOUR RESPONSE:
The argument claims that the electronic games rating system, although similar to the movie rating system, is not working because it is self regulated and violation fines are nominal, Hence, the gaming rating system should be overseen by an independent body. Stated in this way the argument fails to mention several key factors, on the basis of which it could be evaluated. The conclusion relies on assumptions, for which there is no clear evidence. Therefore, the argument is rather weak, unconvincing, and has several flaws.

First, the argument readily assumes that because the electronic game rating system is self regulated, it is not working well. This statement is a stretch and not substantiated in any way. There are numerous examples in other areas of business or commerce, where the entities are self regulated and rather successful. For instance, FIA, the Formula1 racing organization is self regulated. Yet, the sport is very popular and successful, drawing millions of spectators around the world each year. Tickets are rather expensive, races are shown on pay-per-view, and nearly all drivers are paid very well. Another example is the paralleled movie rating system that the argument mentions. The author fails to clarify whether it is working well, but it is clear that the movie rating system is pretty well received by people, who often base their decisions to go see a movie with kids or not on the movie rating. It has never been a case when someone would feel cheated by the movie rating and express disappointment afterwards. Since the movie rating system is also self regulated, it follows that this regulatory method is working pretty well and it is not obvious how it can be the reason for the poor electronic game rating system. The argument would have been much clearer if it explicitly gave examples of how the self regulatory system led to bad ratings and customer dissatisfaction.

Second, the argument claims that any violation fees for bad electronic game ratings are nominal. It thus suggests that this is yet another reason for the rating system not working. This is again a very weak and unsupported claim as the argument does not demonstrate any correlation between the monetary amount of the fines and the quality of the electronic game rating system. In fact, the argument does not even draw a parallel with the mentioned movie rating system and its violation fines. If any such correlation had been shown for the movie rating system, which supposedly works well, then the author would have sounded a bit more convincing. In addition, if the argument provided evidence that low violation fines lead to electronic game manufacturers to ignore any regulations with respect to the game rating system, the argument could have been strengthened even further.

Finally, the argument concludes that an independent body should oversee the game industry and companies that violate the rating system, should be punished. From this statement again, it is not at all clear how an independent regulatory body can do a better job than a self regulated one. Without supporting evidence and examples from other businesses where independent regulatory bodies have done a great job, one is left with the impression that the claim is more of a wishful thinking rather than substantive evidence. As a result, this conclusion has no legs to stand on.

In summary, the argument is flawed and therefore unconvincing. It could be considerably strengthened if the author clearly mentioned all the relevant facts. In order to assess the merits of a certain situation, it is essential to have full knowledge of all contributing factors.


4.2 Issue

ESSAY QUESTION:
“Poor health and high stress levels diminish the productivity of today’s office workers. In order to maximize profits, companies need to provide white-collar employees with free exercise facilities and free wellness classes.”

In your opinion, how accurate is the view expressed above? Use reasons and/or examples from your own experience, observations, or reading to develop your position.

YOUR RESPONSE:
Some people think that productivity at work could be increased if workers are provided with free exercise facilities and wellness classes, as this will improve the workers health and diminish the level of stress in the office. Other people support the claim that people should manage their own health and stress level outside the work space. The issue is a controversial one but a closer examination reveals that companies that promote healthy living among their employees are indeed more productive.

One reason is that people often do not find the motivation or the energy to go to a wellness class and exercise outside of work. Most people are usually very tired by the end of the work day and have other family duties or priorities to worry about. For example, doing grocery shopping, cooking, picking up the kids from practice, etc. Therefore, it is very difficult for such people to make time for exercising and maintain healthy habits. As a result, the stress from a long day of work at the office gets carried over to the next day and the pattern repeats. Eventually, the health of those people worsens and their productivity on the job diminishes.

Another reason is that people often find it attractive to do what their friends or colleagues do. For instance, if five colleagues of a worker join a pilates class and are happy about it, they then tend to recommend it to the worker in question and she will eventually join the class. Contagious behavior such as this can be very easily achieved on the job if pilates classes are offered, because then the discovery of the opportunity and the motivation to join are easily found. Hence, exercising at work becomes a very comfortable activity easily fit into a schedule and promotes the health and happiness of the employees. They not only feel better heath-wise after exercise, but also strengthen relationships with co-workers by doing activities together. In a way, this whole experience can be viewed as team building. Consequently, workers are more energized, alert and therefore productive in their jobs.

Perhaps the best reason is that by providing free exercise facilities and wellness classes companies improve their image and become attractive places to be at for future employees. Not only can such companies attract more viable candidates for new openings, but they can also retain longer the employees they already have. To illustrate this point, let us take Google for example. The company was recently ranked as the best one to work at. One of the main criteria for achieving this rank was the fact that the company takes very good care of its employees in terms of encouraging healthy living. There are numerous sports facilities on the Google campus which people are encouraged to use. Those include gyms, swimming pools, volleyball courts, massage chairs, etc. Personal trainers are also available for free for anyone that needs them. There is also a health center facility on site. With that kind of environment it is difficult to not take advantage and live a healthy living, resulting in better productivity on the job.

In summary, while there are arguments to be made for both sides of the issue, it is clear that there are much greater advantages for companies to provide their workers with free health facilities and classes. Workers find it not only much easier to take advantage of such opportunities on site, but also are much more motivated to do so there. Participating in sports activities improves the workers' mood, desire to work hard, keeps them healthy, and creates a bond among workers. As a result, this translates to a better productivity of the workers and ultimately to maximized profits for the company.


5. Final tips

- During the tutorial type in a few sentences in the mock essay window to get used to the keyboard.

- Again during the tutorial, jot down on your notebook the basic structure of your essays or the opening sentences in case you get too nervous and forget them when the clock starts ticking.

- Write as much as you can. Try to write at least 500 words per essay.

- Always have the e-rater in mind as your potential reviewer. Remember that the human rater will make every effort to grade just like the e-rater. In that sense, keep your structure and volume in mind over actual quality/content.

- Be careful of spelling mistakes. Double check words that you normally know you misspell (e.g. exercise). Try to finish 2-3 minutes before time is up so you can slowly re-read your essay for the purposes of spell checking. Do not reorganize/delete sentences/paragraphs with less than 2 min left.

- No matter how great you thought your essays went, try to stay humble and focused - remember this was just a warm-up and the real stuff hasn't started yet!



Good luck!
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